An adversarial approach for the robust classification of pneumonia from chest radiographs

Joseph D. Janizek, Gabriel Erion, Alex J. DeGrave, Su-In Lee
2020 Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Health, Inference, and Learning  
While deep learning has shown promise in the domain of disease classication from medical images, models based on state-of-the-art convolutional neural network architectures often exhibit performance loss due to dataset shift. Models trained using data from one hospital system achieve high predictive performance when tested on data from the same hospital, but perform signicantly worse when they are tested in dierent hospital systems. Furthermore, even within a given hospital system, deep
more » ... models have been shown to depend on hospital-and patient-level confounders rather than meaningful pathology to make classications. In order for these models to be safely deployed, we would like to ensure that they do not use confounding variables to make their classication, and that they will work well even when tested on images from hospitals that were not included in the training data. We attempt to address this problem in the context of pneumonia classication from chest radiographs. We propose an approach based on adversarial optimization, which allows us to learn more robust models that do not depend on confounders. Specically, we demonstrate improved out-of-hospital generalization performance of a pneumonia classier by training a model that is invariant to the view position of chest radiographs (anterior-posterior vs. posterior-anterior). Our approach leads to better predictive performance on external hospital data than both a standard baseline and previously proposed methods to handle confounding, and also suggests a method for identifying models that may rely on confounders.
doi:10.1145/3368555.3384458 dblp:conf/chil/JanizekEDL20 fatcat:bovemdso7jddndlceujn6znuk4