Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) in Children under 5 Years of Age
Journal of Evidence Based Medicine and Healthcare
BACKGROUND In India epidemiological and social changes occurred concomitantly with the universal introduction of the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. This study identified risk factors for pneumonia following the implementation of a pneumococcal vaccination program. Objective of the present study was to analyse the risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia in children under 5 years of age. METHODS A community based cross-sectional study was undertaken between January and December
... uary and December 2019. Hospitalised children aged 2 -59 months with chest-radiographyconfirmed CAP were enrolled for whom vaccination cards were available. We included child-related factors and sociodemographic factors. RESULTS The study included 160 children -80 cases and 80 controls. There were more male children and more children over 1 year of age in the control group. Variables that were significantly different between groups were age < 1 year, low / very low weight for age, and not having been vaccinated against the influenza virus. There was no significant difference in birth weight, prematurity, previous respiratory diseases, breast feeding, and any other diseases and regarding the use of 10valent pneumococcal vaccine when comparing cases and controls. Sociodemographics like household crowding, maternal age, smoking, lower socioeconomic condition, and maternal education are significantly associated with pneumonia. CONCLUSIONS Effective community-based interventions like health education, generating awareness amongst the people living in the slums may go a long way in addressing the risk factors as well as reducing the burden of pneumonia in these areas.