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The paper describes an agent-based model of the escalation of inner-state ethnic conflicts. Model assumptions are derived from the case of the former Yugoslavia. To comprehend the appearance of war crimes, the model refers to the concept of ethnic norms. The cognitive complexity of norm emergence is represented by using the simulation tool EMIL-S. The model consists of two agent classes: politicians, who enforce value orientations, and citizens, who form paramilitary militia. Simulation resultsdoi:10.7148/2012-0037-0043 dblp:conf/ecms/MarkisicNL12 fatcat:76lo7nerlzejjelii2vuytoiqm