Dense two-dimensional integration of optoelectronics and electronics for interconnections

David A. B. Miller
1998 Heterogeneous Integration: Systems on a Chip: A Critical Review  
Optics has many features, beyond those already exploited in long-distance fiber communications, that make it interesting for interconnections at short distance, including dense optical interconnections directly to silicon integrated circuit chips. Hybrid technologies, such as solder-bump bonding, have recently been successfully used to attach two-dimensional arrays of optical detectors, emitters, and modulators to silicon electronics. Quantum well modulator or self-electro-optic-effect devices
more » ... tic-effect devices (SEEDs), and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) have received particularly strong attention as candidates for the necessary arrayed output devices. This article summarizes the research and prospects in these fields.
doi:10.1117/12.300615 fatcat:2krreind3zh63jsqr7eno2ajdi