The Association between Blood Pressure and Obstructive Sleep Apnea-Hypopnea Syndrome

Cheon-Sik Kim
2014 Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science  
Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea (OSAH) is known to be related to nocturnal blood pressure (BP) and hypertension. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension according to the apnea-hypopnea grading. A total of 2,210 adults with snoring and obstructive sleep apnea were referred to our sleep center from July 2009 to May 2013. Clinical blood pressure (BP) was measured before sleeping (bedtime BP) and immediately after waking up in the next morning (morning BP). Subjects
more » ... e classified into four groups based on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) from PSG as follows: control group (n=470) simple snoring and with AHI<5; mild group (n=577) with AHI≥5 and <15; moderate group (n=508) AHI≥15 and <30; and severe group (n=655) with AHI≥30. The differences and correlations between BP and PSG parameters according to the AHI groups were analyzed. Patient's were classified as nomentensive (blood pressure <120/90 mmHg, n=700 ), prehypertensive (blood pressure <140-120≤mmHg, n=1297) hypertensive (blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg, n=214) according to the office blood pressure measurements. The comparison of sleep parameters showed that OSA groups had a significantly higher stage N1 (control group vs. moderate OSA, severe OSA; 66.4±30.7 vs. 85.5±36.6, 128.4±57.3, p<0.001) and total arousal number (control vs. moderate OSA, severe OSA; 110.7±47.7 vs. 150.8±56.6, 236.6±95.8, p<0.001) compared to control group. The comparison of sleep parameters showed that OSA groups had a significantly lower stage N2 (control group vs. moderate OSA, severe OSA; 172.6±47.2 vs. 150.7±50.5, 120.3±57.4, p<0.001), stage N3 (control group vs. moderate OSA, severe OSA; 38.4±33.4 vs. 27.4±26.0, 56.1±27.5, p<0.001), REM (control group vs. moderate OSA, severe OSA; 64.3±25.5 vs. 56.1±27.5, 47.3±25.9, p<0.001) and mean SaO2% (control group vs. moderate OSA, severe OSA; 90.0±3.5 vs. 82.5±5.5, 70.0±8.8, p<0.001) compared to control group. The Apnea-hypopnea index was significantly higher in OSA groups, increased systolic and diastolic blood pressure than in the nomentensive group (bed time systolic pressure vs. AHI; <120 vs. 120-139, 140-159, >159; 17.5±18.6 vs. 24.9±21.0, 31.0±25.7, 42.3±31.7, p<0.001), (bed time diastolic pressure vs. AHI; 60-79 vs. 80-89, 90-99, >99; 19.3±19.7 vs. 22.4±20.3, 29.8±23.3, 38.8±28.5, p<0.001). AHI was positively correlated with morning systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, bed time systolic pressure and diastolic pressure (r=0.314, 0.279, 0.233 and 0.200, respectively, p<0.001). We conclude that BMI, Age, neck circumference and AHI increase with the blood pressure.
doi:10.15324/kjcls.2014.46.3.106 fatcat:7kr7m4aoy5akll7ffqnfxy4gmy