Fluxo de materiais e eficiência no uso de recursos na indústria da construção [thesis]

Daniel da Costa Reis
AGRADECIMENTOS É praticamente impossível enumerar todos aqueles que contribuíram, de uma forma ou de outra, para a concretização deste trabalho. Não é possível, contudo, deixar de salientar contribuições que pela sua marcada influência passaram a fazer parte integrante. Assim, desejo agradecer em primeiro lugar ao meu orientador o Professor Vanderley M. John pelo seu apoio, disponibilidade, e contribuições científicas que foram fundamentais para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho. A sua dedicação
more » ... ho. A sua dedicação a Universidade e a pesquisa é uma inspiração enorme para todos nós. Aos Professores Sérgio Pacca e Sérgio Ângulo pelos ensinamentos iniciais sobre as metodologias e ferramentas da Ecologia Industrial. Ao longo dos últimos anos participamos em vários projetos e workshops e foi um prazer contar com a vossa colaboração e entusiasmo. A todos os colegas do CICS em particular a Liz Zanchetta e o Max Junginger pelo apoio proporcionado ao longo destes últimos anos. Aos elementos do grupo de pesquisa pelas sugestões e discussões sobre ACV, nomeadamente, Por fim, desejo exprimir o meu profundo reconhecimento a todos os familiares e em particular aos meus pais e a minha esposa Tainá Oliveira por terem-me apoiado ao longo destes últimos anos. ABSTRACT The construction industry is responsible for consuming more than 50% of all resources extracted worldwide, exerting a significant environmental pressure. Maintaining or increasing production levels and while reducing environmental pressure is a challenge and is also foreseen by the Sustainable Development Goals. Although construction industry has opportunities to decouple growth and environmental impacts, these opportunities are often missed, especially in developing countries which are expected to take the lead of natural resources consumption. To promote decoupling and sustainability in the construction industry, it is necessary indicators that allow quantifying the environmental performance of products, establishing goals and monitoring progress. This study aims to develop a set of indicators to quantify the use of resources in a simple and accessible way for small and medium-sized companies, helping professionals and managers to engage in strategies to increase resource efficiency and dematerialization. The research method starts evaluating the economic sectors and classified them as belonging to the foreground or background system from the perspective of construction industry. Foreground sectors are those controlled or influenced by the construction industry and are defined based on the production share consumed by the construction value chain; while the background sectors are those that has a low market-share and less sensitive to inventory data and to collaborate with industry procedures or even public policies. Within the several sectors, cement-based materials are stand out since as a market-share above 60% (by mass). For this sector, a Material Flow Analysis (MFA) was conducted to quantify the main activities that influence the resource efficiency and the dematerialization potential between industry and on-site mix production. Finally, using the concepts of MFA and considering a life cycle perspective, a set of indicators was developed -material intensity and efficiency, circularity, and waste generation rate -to quantify the use of materials. These indicators can be used in different scales (construction designers, material producers, builders, developers) and for several industrial sectors. Since they are simple to understand and easy to measure, it allows developing of benchmarking and ranking designs, facilities, and firms according to the best practices.
doi:10.11606/t.3.2020.tde-26052021-100321 fatcat:qooqzvjysnh7bdanfqatyy24du