Leucine-rich glioma inactivated 3: Integrative analyses support its role in the cytokine network
International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Leucine-rich glioma inactivated (LGI)3 is a secreted protein member of LGI family. We previously repo rted that LGI3 was upregulated in adipose tissues from obese mice and suppressed adipogenesis through its receptor, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain-containing protein 23 (ADAM23). We demonstrated that LGI3 regulated tumor necrosis factor-α and adiponectin, and proposed that LGI3 may be a pro-inflammatory adipokine involved in adipose tissue inflammation. In this study, we analyzed
... pokine and cytokine profiles in LGI3 knockout mice and demonstrated that multiple factors were increased or decreased in the adipose tissues and plasma of the LGI3 knockout mice. Phosphoprotein array analysis revealed increases in the phosphorylation levels of Akt, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), Bad, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2, glycogen synthase kinase 3α (GSK3α), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) in the LGI3treated 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes. Treatment with LGI3 increased the expression of various inflammatory genes in pre-adipocytes, adipocytes and macrophages. Integrative functional enrichment analysis for all LGI3-regulated gene products suggested their involvement in a number of biological processes, including cancer, inflammatory response, response to wounding, as well as cell proliferation and differentiation. Protein interaction network analysis of LGI3-regulated gene products revealed that 94% of the gene products formed a cluster of interaction networks. Taken together, these results support the critical involvement of LGI3 in the cytokine network by interplaying with multiple adipokines, cytokines and signaling proteins.