Development regulation of the subcellular distribution and glycosylation of GLUT1 and GLUT4 glucose transporters during myogenesis of L6 muscle cells
Journal of Biological Chemistry
L6 myoblasts spontaneously undergo differentiation and cell fusion into myotubes. These cells express both GLUT1 and GLUT4 glucose transporters, but their expression varies during myogenesis. We now report that the subcellular distribution and the protein processing by glycosylation of both glucose transporter isoforms also change during myogenesis. Crude plasma membrane and light microsome fractions were isolated from either myoblasts or myotubes and characterized by the presence of two
... sence of two functional proteins, the Na+/K(+)-ATPase and the dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR). Immunoreactive alpha 1 subunit of the Na+/K(+)-ATPase was faint in the crude plasma membrane fraction from myoblasts, but abundant in both membrane fractions from myotubes. In contrast, the alpha 1 subunit of the DHPR, which is expressed only in differentiated muscle, was detected in crude plasma membrane from myotubes but not from myoblasts. Therefore, crude plasma membrane fractions from myoblasts and myotubes contain cell surface markers, and the composition of these membranes appears to be developmentally regulated during myogenesis. GLUT1 protein was more abundant in the crude plasma membrane relative to the light microsome fraction prepared from either myoblasts or myotubes. The molecular size in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the GLUT1 transporters in myotubes was smaller than that in myoblasts (Mr 47,000 and 53,000, respectively). GLUT4 protein (Mr 48,000) was barely detectable in the crude plasma membrane fraction and was almost absent in the light microsome fraction prepared from myoblasts. However, GLUT4 protein was abundant in myotubes and was predominantly located in the light microsome fraction. Treatment with endoglycosidase F reduced the molecular size of the transporters in all fractions to Mr 46,000 for GLUT1 and Mr 47,000 for GLUT4 proteins. In myotubes, acute insulin treatment increased the crude plasma membrane content of GLUT1 marginally and of GLUT4 markedly, with a concomitant decrease in the light microsomal fraction. These results indicate that: (a) the subcellular distribution of glucose transporters is regulated during myogenesis, GLUT4 being preferentially sorted to intracellular membranes; (b) both GLUT1 and GLUT4 transporters are processed by N-linked glycosylation to form the mature transporters in the course of myogenesis; and (c) insulin causes modest recruitment of GLUT1 transporters and marked recruitment of GLUT4 transporters, from light microsomes to plasma membranes in L6 myotubes.