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The electrical output performance of photovoltaic (PV) modules are sensitive to temperature variations and the intensity of solar irradiance under prolonged exposure. Only 20% of solar irradiance is converted into useful electricity, and the remaining are dissipated as heat which in turns increases the module operating temperature. The increase in module operating temperature has an adverse impact on the open-circuit voltage (Voc), which results in the power conversion efficiency reduction anddoi:10.11591/ijece.v11i1.pp146-154 fatcat:h6ltznmhobhrzmme4i5zkkb7dm