Theory of the lattice Boltzmann method: Acoustic and thermal properties in two and three dimensions
Physical review. E, Statistical physics, plasmas, fluids, and related interdisciplinary topics
The focus of the present work is to provide an analysis for the acoustic and thermal properties of the energy-conserving lattice Boltzmann models, and a solution to the numerical defects and instability associated with these models in two and three dimensions. We discover that a spurious algebraic coupling between the shear and energy modes of the linearized evolution operator is a defect universal to the energy-conserving Boltzmann models in two and three dimensions. This spurious mode
... is highly anisotropic and may occur at small values of wave number k along certain directions, and it is a direct consequence of the following key features of the lattice Boltzmann equation: ͑1͒ its simple spatial-temporal dynamics, ͑2͒ the linearity of the relaxation modeling for collision operator, and ͑3͒ the energy-conservation constraint. To eliminate the spurious mode coupling, we propose a hybrid thermal lattice Boltzmann equation ͑HTLBE͒ in which the mass and momentum conservation equations are solved by using the multiple-relaxation-time model due to d'Humières, whereas the diffusion-advection equation for the temperature is solved separately by using finite-difference technique ͑or other means͒. Through the Chapman-Enskog analysis we show that the hydrodynamic equations derived from the proposed HTLBE model include the equivalent effect of ␥ϭC P /C V in both the speed and attenuation of sound. Appropriate coupling between the energy and velocity field is introduced to attain correct acoustics in the model. The numerical stability of the HTLBE scheme is analyzed by solving the dispersion equation of the linearized collision operator. We find that the numerical stability of the lattice Boltzmann scheme improves drastically once the spurious mode coupling is removed. It is shown that the HTLBE scheme is far superior to the existing thermal LBE schemes in terms of numerical stability, flexibility, and possible generalization for complex fluids. We also present the simulation results of the convective flow in a rectangular cavity with different temperatures on two opposite vertical walls and under the influence of gravity. Our numerical results agree well with the pseudospectral result.