Ultrasound-Responsive Systems as Components for Smart Materials

Athanasios G. Athanassiadis, Zhichao Ma, Nicolas Moreno-Gomez, Kai Melde, Eunjin Choi, Rahul Goyal, Peer Fischer
2021 Chemical Reviews  
Smart materials can respond to stimuli and adapt their responses based on external cues from their environments. Such behavior requires a way to transport energy efficiently and then convert it for use in applications such as actuation, sensing, or signaling. Ultrasound can carry energy safely and with low losses through complex and opaque media. It can be localized to small regions of space and couple to systems over a wide range of time scales. However, the same characteristics that allow
more » ... asound to propagate efficiently through materials make it difficult to convert acoustic energy into other useful forms. Recent work across diverse fields has begun to address this challenge, demonstrating ultrasonic effects that provide control over physical and chemical systems with surprisingly high specificity. Here, we review recent progress in ultrasound-matter interactions, focusing on effects that can be incorporated as components in smart materials. These techniques build on fundamental phenomena such as cavitation, microstreaming, scattering, and acoustic radiation forces to enable capabilities such as actuation, sensing, payload delivery, and the initiation of chemical or biological processes. The diversity of emerging techniques holds great promise for a wide range of smart capabilities supported by ultrasound and poses interesting questions for further investigations.
doi:10.1021/acs.chemrev.1c00622 pmid:34767350 pmcid:PMC8915171 fatcat:vokzxwr4jjcghggq547fkzyg5i