The association between parental life history and offspring phenotype in Atlantic salmon

Travis E. Van Leeuwen, Darryl McLennan, Simon McKelvey, David C. Stewart, Colin E. Adams, Neil B. Metcalfe
2015 Journal of Experimental Biology  
In many taxa there is considerable intraspecific variation in life history strategies from within a single population, reflecting alternative routes through which organisms can achieve successful reproduction. Atlantic salmon Salmo salar (Linnaeus) show some of the greatest within-population variability in life history strategies amongst vertebrates, with multiple discrete male and female life histories co-existing and interbreeding on many spawning grounds, although the effect of the various
more » ... mbinations of life histories on offspring traits remains unknown. Using crosses of wild fish we show here that the life history strategy of both parents was significantly associated with a range of offspring traits. Mothers that had spent longer at sea (2 versus 1 year) produced offspring that were heavier, longer and in better condition at the time of first feeding. However, these relationships disappeared shortly after fry had begun feeding exogenously. At this stage, the juvenile rearing environment (i.e. time spent in fresh water as juveniles) of the mother was a better predictor of offspring traits, with mothers that were faster to develop in fresh water (migrating to sea after two rather than three years of age) producing offspring that had higher maximal metabolic rates, aerobic scopes, and that grew faster. Faster developing fathers (1 year old sneaker males) tended to produce offspring that had higher maximal metabolic rates, were in better body condition and grew faster. The results suggest that both genetic effects and those related to parental early and late life history contribute to offspring traits. Fig. S1 . A schematic diagram of each combination of life histories used in the factorial mating design adopted for the study. Note: 1SW= 1 year spent in sea water; 2SW= 2 years spent in sea water; Parr= males that matured in FW and spent 0 years in sea water; 1FW= 1 year spent in freshwater; 2 FW= 2 years spent in fresh water. See text for more details. Journal of Experimental Biology • Supplementary information Journal of Experimental Biology 219: doi:10.1242/jeb.122531: Supplementary information Fig. S2. The relationship between the time mothers had spent at sea (1 or 2 years) and egg mass. Error bars represent 95% confidence intervals. See text for statistical analysis. Journal of Experimental Biology • Supplementary information
doi:10.1242/jeb.122531 pmid:26596536 fatcat:yub3fzpaafdqnnautbnqatb6oe