Combined Magnetic Hyperthermia and Photothermia with Polyelectrolyte/Gold-Coated Magnetic Nanorods

Marina Lázaro, Pablo Lupiáñez, José L. Arias, María P. Carrasco-Jiménez, Ángel V. Delgado, Guillermo R. Iglesias
2022 Polymers  
Magnetite nanorods (MNRs) are synthesized based on the use of hematite nanoparticles of the desired geometry and dimensions as templates. The nanorods are shown to be highly monodisperse, with a 5:1 axial ratio, and with a 275 nm long semiaxis. The MNRs are intended to be employed as magnetic hyperthermia and photothermia agents, and as drug vehicles. To achieve a better control of their photothermia response, the particles are coated with a layer of gold, after applying a branched
more » ... mine (PEI, 2 kDa molecular weight) shell. Magnetic hyperthermia is performed by application of alternating magnetic fields with frequencies in the range 118–210 kHz and amplitudes up to 22 kA/m. Photothermia is carried out by subjecting the particles to a near-infrared (850 nm) laser, and three monochromatic lasers in the visible spectrum with wavelengths 480 nm, 505 nm, and 638 nm. Best results are obtained with the 505 nm laser, because of the proximity between this wavelength and that of the plasmon resonance. A so-called dual therapy is also tested, and the heating of the samples is found to be faster than with either method separately, so the strengths of the individual fields can be reduced. Due to toxicity concerns with PEI coatings, viability of human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells was tested after contact with nanorod suspensions up to 500 µg/mL in concentration. It was found that the cell viability was indistinguishable from control systems, so the particles can be considered non-cytotoxic in vitro. Finally, the release of the antitumor drug doxorubicin is investigated for the first time in the presence of the two external fields, and of their combination, with a clear improvement in the rate of drug release in the latter case.
doi:10.3390/polym14224913 pmid:36433039 pmcid:PMC9693010 fatcat:xue47prv5nfd3di76gev55koxi