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The development of lead-free solder has an urgent task for material scientist due to health and environmental concerns over the lead content of traditional solders. The objective of this study is to examine Bi-Ag-rare earth (RE) element considered as one of the more attractive lead-free solders since it can easily replace Sn-Pb eutectic alloy with increasing soldering temperature while causes for high-temperature applications. In order to enhance the soldering properties of Bi-Ag alloys, adoi:10.24297/jap.v14i2.7471 fatcat:yc4zjvtqvve6vjir27blcu52gi