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We have measured upper-division physics majors' performance using two research-based conceptual instruments in E&M, the BEMA  and the CUE (Colorado Upper Division Electrostatics assessment  .) The BEMA has been given pre/post in freshman E&M (Physics II) courses, and the BEMA and CUE have been given pre/post in several upper-division E&M courses. Some of these data extend over 10 semesters. We used PER-based techniques to transform the introductory and upper-division courses starting indoi:10.1063/1.3266724 fatcat:zgxoderqfrczdfyows3kggdzge