The Principle of Nanomaterials Based Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensors and Its Potential for Dopamine Detection
For a healthy life, the human biological system should work in order. Scheduled lifestyle and lack of nutrients usually lead to fluctuations in the biological entities levels such as neurotransmitters (NTs), proteins, and hormones, which in turns put the human health in risk. Dopamine (DA) is an extremely important catecholamine NT distributed in the central nervous system. Its level in the body controls the function of human metabolism, central nervous, renal, hormonal, and cardiovascular
... cardiovascular systems. It is closely related to the major domains of human cognition, feeling, and human desires, as well as learning. Several neurological disorders such as schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease are related to the extreme abnormalities in DA levels. Therefore, the development of an accurate, effective, and highly sensitive method for rapid determination of DA concentrations is desired. Up to now, different methods have been reported for DA detection such as electrochemical strategies, high-performance liquid chromatography, colorimetry, and capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry. However, most of them have some limitations. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy was widely used in biosensing. However, its use to detect NTs is still growing and has fascinated impressive attention of the scientific community. The focus in this concise review paper will be on the principle of SPR sensors and its operation mechanism, the factors that affect the sensor performance. The efficiency of SPR biosensors to detect several clinically related analytes will be mentioned. DA functions in the human body will be explained. Additionally, this review will cover the incorporation of nanomaterials into SPR biosensors and its potential for DA sensing with mention to its advantages and disadvantages.