A review of the cardinal fishes of Japan

David Starr Jordan, John Otterbein Snyder
1901 Proceedings of the United States National Museum  
Body ol)long or elongate, sometimes compressed and elevated, covered with rather large scales, which are striated and ctenoid, or sometimes cycloid; cheeks scaly; lateral line continuous; cleft of mouth wnde, oblique; villiform teeth on jaws and vomer, and sometimes on palatines; canines sometimes present (teeth wanting in Bi'tpJiOxtoma)', preopercle with a single or double ridge, its edges entire or serrated; opercular spine little developed; lower pharyngeals separate, with sharp teeth;
more » ... -branehiie present; branchiostegals 6 or 7. Dorsal fins well separated, the first with (> to !» rather strong spines; no dorsal sheath or furrow; anal fin short, with 2 or 3 spines; ventral fins thoracic, I, 5, without axillary scale. Gill-rakers slender; gill membranes separate, free from the isthmus. . Small fishes of the Tropics, especially abundant in the East Indies, some of them in fresh waters, most of them in rather deep waters. In Japan, notwithstanding their small size, thev have great importance in the markets as food-fishes. a. Yent posterior, not far from front of anal fin. b. Apogonimc. Anal spines 2; body oblong; teeth present, in jaws at least; preopercle with a double ridge. c. Canine teeth none, the teeth all villiform; lateral line normal; palatines with teeth. Head 2f in length; depth 2t; depth of caudal peduncle 2 in head; eye 3^; interorbital space 3^; snout -ii; maxillary If; D. VII-I, 9; A. II, 8; scales in lateral series 25; in transverse series 9. Bod}' rather robust; the head large. Interorbital space somewhat convex. Snout about equal to diameter of eye. Mouth large; ver}oblique; lower jaw slightly projecting; maxillary extending beyond pupil, sometimes reaching l)eyond posterior l)ord(M' of eye. Spinous dorsal low. Soft dorsal and anal high, in some specimens almost reaching l)ase of caudal when depressed. Caudal truncate posteriorly. Dull reddish olive, the edges of the scales sometimes but not always No.r2J0.
doi:10.5479/si.00963801.23-1240.891 fatcat:layho5ybxbd5teptn4tawxtbk4