Introspection and general methods

C. H. Toll
1917 Psychological bulletin  
Developing the program of a psychology in which introspection has no part, Lashley (7) reviews the work done on the conditioned salivary reflex in man, urging the importance of this method for study of the mechanism of learning; and Watson (19) reports work with conditioned motor reflexes in man, concluding that the method is widely applicable, e. g., in pathology as well as in studies of memory, association reactions, and problems of sensory experience. Brown (3) considers that the conscious
more » ... hat the conscious entities of the introspectionists are "really nothing but integrations of physical states and organic processes"; and Abbot (1) argues that psychology can be objective only by understanding that mind is related to brain as respiration is to lungs, and that all reactions aie adaptive to the complete environment. Hollingworth (6) finds that introspective psychology has failed to discover qualitative differences between the several kinds of experience which are supposed to have different degrees of objectivity, and that the true distinction between the psychical and the physical is simply the statistical difference between the "indefinite and rare" and the "definite and common"; "in this sense, and in this sense alone, psychology may properly be defined as the science of behavior-it is the science of the behavior of statistically variable experience." According to Givler (5) behaviorism is "a theory of the criteria of mind and not a system that can be substituted for psychology," but he also writes that "minds are what human bodies do with nature." Psychology
doi:10.1037/h0074775 fatcat:nubtafa2uvahrfxocosaaxizjq