### Introduction to computability logic

Giorgi Japaridze
<span title="">2003</span> <i title="Elsevier BV"> <a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/bnojym2hjzcgnpa4wixi2axhnq" style="color: black;">Annals of Pure and Applied Logic</a> </i> &nbsp;
This work is an attempt to lay foundations for a theory of interactive computation and bring logic and theory of computing closer together. It semantically introduces a logic of computability and sets a program for studying various aspects of that logic. The intuitive notion of (interactive) computational problems is formalized as a certain new, procedural-rule-free sort of games (called static games) between the machine and the environment, and computability is understood as existence of an
more &raquo; ... eractive Turing machine that wins the game against any possible environment. The formalism used as a specification language for computational problems, called the universal language, is a non-disjoint union of the formalisms of classical, intuitionistic and linear logics, with logical operators interpreted as certain, -most basic and natural, -operations on problems. Validity of a formula is understood as being "always computable", and the set of all valid formulas is called the universal logic. The name "universal" is related to the potential of this logic to integrate, on the basis of one semantics, classical, intuitionistic and linear logics, with their seemingly unrelated or even antagonistic philosophies. In particular, the classical notion of truth turns out to be nothing but computability restricted to the formulas of the classical fragment of the universal language, which makes classical logic a natural syntactic fragment of the universal logic. The same appears to be the case for intuitionistic and linear logics (understood in a broad sense and not necessarily identified with the particular known axiomatic systems). Unlike classical logic, these two do not have a good concept of truth, and the notion of computability restricted to the corresponding two fragments of the universal language, based on the intuitions that it formalizes, can well qualify as "intuitionistic truth" and "linear-logic truth". The paper also provides illustrations of potential applications of the universal logic in knowledgebase, resourcebase and planning systems, as well as constructive applied theories. The author has tried to make this article easy to read. It is fully self-contained and can be understood without any specialized knowledge of any particular subfield of logic or computer science.
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