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A B S T R A C T Brain-computer-interfaces (BCI) provide a means of using human brain activations to control devices for communication. Until now this has only been demonstrated in primary motor and sensory brain regions, using surgical implants or non-invasive neuroimaging techniques. Here, we provide proof-of-principle for the use of higherorder brain regions involved in complex cognitive processes such as attention. Using realtime fMRI, we implemented an online 'winner-takes-all approach'doi:10.3929/ethz-b-000228345 fatcat:2pmxyfazdjf2pe2nlldranlnna