A possible observational measure of evolution in bipolar nebulae

J. P. Phillips
2002 Astronomy and Astrophysics  
Bipolar planetary nebulae (BPNe) possess a broad range of shapes, ranging from narrow-waisted butterfly-like structures, through to those which are more nearly cylindrical. We point out that these morphologies appear to be correlated with radio surface brightness T b , in the sense that higher values of T b are associated with envelopes having narrower waists. If one interprets the variation in T b as arising from shell evolution, as is usually assumed for other planetaries, this would then
more » ... y that shell morphology varies with time in a manner which appears not to be consistent with evolutionary models. It also remains possible, however, that different BPNe morphologies arise as a result of differing mechanisms of formation, and that the pre-collimation of high velocity central winds gives rise to narrower waists, and higher surface brightness nuclei. Our results, if this is true, may then imply that central winds possess a broad range of collimations.
doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20020031 fatcat:tczn7ccymfakdex3annvvy4ao4