Effect of ractopamine-hydrochloride on the fiber type distribution and shelf-life of six muscles of steers

J. M. Gonzalez, S. E. Johnson, T. A. Thrift, J. D. Savell, S. E. Ouellette, D. D. Johnson
2009 Journal of Animal Science  
The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of ractopamine-hydrochloride (RAC) supplementation on the myosin heavy chain isoform distribution and shelf-life properties of muscles from beef top round, knuckle, and loin. Thirty-four steer carcasses were selected from 4 separate slaughter groups. Within each slaughter group (3 groups, n = 8; 1 group, n = 10), steers were separated into pens (n = 8) and fed 0 or 200 mg•animal −1 •d −1 of RAC for the final 28 d of feeding. Seventy-two hours
more » ... stmortem, the longissimus lumborum, semimembranosus (SM), adductor, gracilis, vastus lateralis (VL), and rectus femoris were removed from each carcass. A subsample of each muscle was collected for immunohistochemical analysis. Whole muscles were vacuum packaged and wet aged at 1 ± 2°C for 13 d before processing into steaks for a 5-d simulated retail display study. Daily, steaks were analyzed for reduction of nitric oxide metmyoglobin, lean color, fat color, and surface discoloration. Objective measures of metmyoglobin, oxymyoglobin, L*, a*, and b* values were recorded daily. Ractopamine significantly (P < 0.05) changed the fiber type isoform distribution in all muscles except the SM. The VL and gracilis presented the greatest fiber type switch with approximately 21% of type I fibers switching to type IIA fibers. However, the fiber type shifts induced by RAC supplementation had little to no effect on subjective and objective color measurements during the 5-d retail display period. Metmyoglobin and oxymyoglobin accumulation, L*, a*, and b*-values were not affected (P > 0.05) by RAC supplementation. Percent nitric oxide metmyoglobin reduction data indicate that reducing ability of RACtreated steaks from the adductor and longissimus lumborum were significantly affected (P < 0.05). Visual panel data suggest that RAC tended (P < 0.10) to have the most detrimental effect on the lean color and surface discoloration scores of steaks from the VL during the last 3 d of display. Ractopamine significantly (P < 0.05) increased the surface discoloration of the rectus femoris and SM on d 5. Although RAC supplementation had no effect on objective color measurements, subjective measurements indicate that it may have some effect on surface discoloration of some muscles.
doi:10.2527/jas.2008-1469 pmid:19181765 fatcat:dfpuetuxlzdy5k6j6vkqax6bem