Dietary Fat Is Associated With Metabolic Syndrome in Japanese Brazilians
OBJECTIVE -The aim of this study was to examine the association of nutrient intakes with metabolic syndrome in a Japanese descendant population at high risk for metabolic abnormalities. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -In a population-based study of Japanese Brazilians aged Ն30 years, 412 men and 465 women were studied. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria modified for Asians. Food intake was assessed by a validated food frequency
... ionnaire. RESULTS -Men and women showed similar mean ages (55.7 Ϯ 12.7 and 54.4 Ϯ 11.9 years) and 49% (95% CI 44.8 -54.6) and 43% (38.4 -47.6) had metabolic syndrome, respectively. As expected, clinical parameters were less favorable in the subset of subjects with metabolic syndrome. Men with metabolic syndrome showed higher cholesterol (233.2 Ϯ 116.3 vs. 211.7 Ϯ 5.8 g/day, P Ͻ 0.05) and lower carbohydrate (288.5 Ϯ 45.8 vs. 300.1 Ϯ 39.8 g/day, P Ͻ 0.001) intakes than those without metabolic syndrome, but no difference was observed among the women. After adjusting for sex, age, smoking, education level, generation, physical activity, total energy, and dietary fiber intake, a positive association between metabolic syndrome and total fat intake was detected. Comparing people in the highest quintile of total fat consumption with those in the lowest quintile, odds ratio (OR) of metabolic syndrome was 5.0 ([95% CI 1.58 -16.00]; P Ͻ 0.005). In contrast, linoleic acid intake was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome (OR 0.50 [95% CI 0.26 -0.98]; P Ͻ 0.05). Considering food groups, after adjustments only fried food intake was shown to be associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome. CONCLUSIONS -Despite the limitation of such a study design in investigating causeeffect relationships, our findings favor the hypothesis that dietary total fat may increase whereas linoleic acid intake may reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome in Japanese descendants living in Brazil. . *A complete list of Japanese-Brazilian Diabetes Study Group members can be found in the APPENDIX. Abbreviations: HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. A table elsewhere in this issue shows conventional and Système International (SI) units and conversion factors for many substances.