The Effect of Step-Stretch Parameters on Capillary Breakup Extensional Rheology (CaBER) Measurements
AIP Conference Proceedings
Extensional rheometry has only recently been developed into a commercially available tool with the introduction of the capillary breakup extensional rheometer (CaBER). CaBER is currently being used to measure the transient extensional viscosity evolution of mid to low-viscosity viscoelastic fluids. The elegance of capillary breakup extensional experiments lies in the simplicity of the procedure. An initial step-stretch is applied to generate a fluid filament. What follows is a self-driven
... a self-driven uniaxial extensional flow in which surface tension is balanced by the extensional stresses resulting from the capillary thinning of the liquid bridge. In this paper, we describe the results from a series of experiments in which the step-stretch parameters of final length, and the extension rate of the stretch were varied and their effects on the measured extensional viscosity and extensional relaxation time were recorded. To focus on the parameter effects, well-characterized surfactant wormlike micelle solutions, polymer solutions, and immiscible polymer blends were used to include a range of characteristic relaxation times and morphologies. Our experimental results demonstrate a strong dependence of extensional rheology on step-stretch conditions for both wormlike micelle solutions and immiscible polymer blends. Both the extensional viscosity and extensional relaxation time of the wormlike micelle solutions were found to decrease with increasing extension rate and strain of the step-stretch. For the case of the immiscible polymer blends, fast step-stretches were found to result in droplet deformation and an overshoot in the extensional viscosity which increased with increasing strain rates. Conversely, the polymer solutions tested were found to be insensitive to step-stretch parameters. In addition, numerical simulations were performed using the appropriate constitutive models to assist in both the interpretation of the CaBER results and the optimization of the experimental protocol. From our results, it is clear that any rheological results obtained using the CaBER technique must be properly considered in the context of the stretch parameters and the effects that preconditioning has on viscoelastic fluids.