Linking the Amyloid, Tau, and Mitochondrial Hypotheses of Alzheimer's Disease and Identifying Promising Drug Targets

Zdeněk Fišar
2022 Biomolecules  
Damage or loss of brain cells and impaired neurochemistry, neurogenesis, and synaptic and nonsynaptic plasticity of the brain lead to dementia in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Injury to synapses and neurons and accumulation of extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles are considered the main morphological and neuropathological features of AD. Age, genetic and epigenetic factors, environmental stressors, and lifestyle contribute to
more » ... risk of AD onset and progression. These risk factors are associated with structural and functional changes in the brain, leading to cognitive decline. Biomarkers of AD reflect or cause specific changes in brain function, especially changes in pathways associated with neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, bioenergetics, apoptosis, and oxidative and nitrosative stress. Even in the initial stages, AD is associated with Aβ neurotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, and tau neurotoxicity. The integrative amyloid-tau-mitochondrial hypothesis assumes that the primary cause of AD is the neurotoxicity of Aβ oligomers and tau oligomers, mitochondrial dysfunction, and their mutual synergy. For the development of new efficient AD drugs, targeting the elimination of neurotoxicity, mutual potentiation of effects, and unwanted protein interactions of risk factors and biomarkers (mainly Aβ oligomers, tau oligomers, and mitochondrial dysfunction) in the early stage of the disease seems promising.
doi:10.3390/biom12111676 pmid:36421690 pmcid:PMC9687482 fatcat:vqrhe2utmvb3dduzcexmwaguf4