Haloadaptative Responses of Aspergillus sydowii to Extreme Water Deprivation: Morphology, Compatible Solutes, and Oxidative Stress at NaCl Saturation

Irina Jiménez-Gómez, Gisell Valdés-Muñoz, Tonatiuh Moreno-Perlin, Rosa R. Mouriño-Pérez, María del Rayo Sánchez-Carbente, Jorge Luis Folch-Mallol, Yordanis Pérez-Llano, Nina Gunde-Cimerman, Nilda del C. Sánchez, Ramón Alberto Batista-García
2020 Journal of Fungi  
Water activity (aw) is critical for microbial growth, as it is severely restricted at aw < 0.90. Saturating NaCl concentrations (~5.0 M) induce extreme water deprivation (aw ≅ 0.75) and cellular stress responses. Halophilic fungi have cellular adaptations that enable osmotic balance and ionic/oxidative stress prevention to grow at high salinity. Here we studied the morphology, osmolyte synthesis, and oxidative stress defenses of the halophile Aspergillus sydowii EXF-12860 at 1.0 M and 5.13 M
more » ... 1.0 M and 5.13 M NaCl. Colony growth, pigmentation, exudate, and spore production were inhibited at NaCl-saturated media. Additionally, hyphae showed unpolarized growth, lower diameter, and increased septation, multicellularity and branching compared to optimal NaCl concentration. Trehalose, mannitol, arabitol, erythritol, and glycerol were produced in the presence of both 1.0 M and 5.13 M NaCl. Exposing A. sydowii cells to 5.13 M NaCl resulted in oxidative stress evidenced by an increase in antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxidation biomarkers. Also, genes involved in cellular antioxidant defense systems were upregulated. This is the most comprehensive study that investigates the micromorphology and the adaptative cellular response of different non-enzymatic and enzymatic oxidative stress biomarkers in halophilic filamentous fungi.
doi:10.3390/jof6040316 pmid:33260894 fatcat:npwv5tzhs5aihlx7acol2c2f34