Sulforaphane metabolites cause apoptosis via microtubule disruption in cancer

Yan Zhou, Gaoxiang Yang, Hua Tian, Yabin Hu, Sai Wu, Yang Geng, Kai Lin, Wei Wu
2018 Endocrine-Related Cancer  
Sulforaphane (SFN) inhibited growth in many cancers, but its half-life is 2 h in circulation. However, its metabolites, sulforaphane-cysteine (SFN-Cys) and sulforaphane-N-acetyl-cysteine (SFN-NAC) had longer half-lives and decreased the cell viability in both dose- and time-dependent manners in human prostate cancer. Flow cytometry assay revealed that these two SFN metabolites induced apoptosis with the features such as vacuolization, disappeared nuclear envelope, nuclear agglutination and
more » ... lutination and fragmentation via transmission electron microscopy observation. Western blot showed that the sustained phosphorylation of ERK1/2 mediated by SFN metabolites caused activation and upregulation of cleaved Caspase 3 and downregulation of α-tubulin. High expression of α-tubulin was demonstrated to be positively correlated with cancer pathological grading. Both co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence staining implicated the interaction between SFN metabolite-induced phosphorylated ERK1/2 and α-tubulin, and Caspase 3 cleavage assay showed that α-tubulin might be the substrate for cleaved Caspase 3. More, the SFN metabolite-mediated reduction of α-tubulin increased the depolymerization and instability of microtubules by microtubule polymerization assay. Reversely, microtubule-associated protein Stathmin-1 phosphorylation was increased via phosphorylated ERK1/2 and total Stathmin-1 was reduced, which might promote over-stability of microtubules. Immunofluorescence staining also showed that SFN metabolites induced the 'nest-like' structures of microtubule distribution resulting from the disrupted and aggregated microtubules, and abnormal nuclear division, suggesting that the disturbance of spindle formation and mitosis turned up. Thus, SFN-Cys and SFN-NAC triggered the dynamic imbalance of microtubules, microtubule disruption leading to cell apoptosis. These findings provided a novel insight into the chemotherapy of human prostate cancer.
doi:10.1530/erc-17-0483 pmid:29431641 fatcat:owb2oth65ndpllsfd3nkji4d74