Oligosaccharides from human milk induce growth arrest via G2/M by influencing growth-related cell cycle genes in intestinal epithelial cells

Sabine Kuntz, Clemens Kunz, Silvia Rudloff
2008 British Journal of Nutrition  
Oligosaccharides are present in human milk in large amounts and in a high variety. We have previously shown that these oligosaccharides are strong inhibitors of proliferation and inducers of differentiation in intestinal cell lines. To elucidate the molecular mechanism, we investigated the influence on cell cycle events via flow cytometry and expression levels by using quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Human intestinal cells, i.e. HT-29, HIEC and Caco-2 cells, were exposed to neutral or acidic
more » ... n milk oligosaccharides. Both fractions induced a concentration-dependent G2/M arrest. Cell cycle analysis for HT-29 revealed 37 % of cells in G1 and 35 % in G2/M (neutral oligosaccharides) and incubation with acidic oligosaccharides led to 42 % cells in G1 and 40 % in G2/M. In control experiments without oligosaccharides we found 71 % of cells to be in G1 and 17 % in G2/M. This G2/M arrest was associated with changes in mRNA expression of cyclin A and B. A G2/M arrest with concomitant alterations of cell cycle gene expression could also be shown for HIEC and Caco-2 cells. Analysing the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 cip1 and p27 kip1 and the tumour suppressor p53 we observed that the expression of p21 cip1 was p53-independent and necessary for arresting cells in the G2/M phase, while p27 kip1 was associated with differentiation effects. Both neutral and acidic human milk oligosaccharides were able to induce epidermal growth factor receptor, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and p38 phosphorylation. These results suggest that oligosaccharides from human milk inhibited intestinal cell proliferation and altered cell cycle dynamics by affecting corresponding regulator genes and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling. Abbreviations: CDK, cyclin-dependent kinase; CDKI, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors; Ct, cycle threshold; EGFR, epidermal growth factor receptor; ERK, extracellular signal-regulated kinase; HMO, human milk oligosaccharides; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase.
doi:10.1017/s0007114508079622 pmid:19079835 fatcat:fvflqdlj3ndztes2efqm5mpe5m