The 3D Kinematics of the Orion Nebula Cluster: NIRSPEC-AO Radial Velocities of the Core Population
The kinematics and dynamics of stellar and substellar populations within young, still-forming clusters provide valuable information for constraining theories of formation mechanisms. Using Keck II NIRSPEC+AO data, we have measured radial velocities for 56 low-mass sources within 4′ of the core of the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). We also remeasure radial velocities for 172 sources observed with SDSS/APOGEE. These data are combined with proper motions measured using HST ACS/WFPC2/WFC3IR and Keck
... NIRC2, creating a sample of 135 sources with all three velocity components. The velocities measured are consistent with a normal distribution in all three components. We measure intrinsic velocity dispersions of ( σ v α , σ v δ , σ v r ) = (1.64 ± 0.12, 2.03 ± 0.13, 2.56 − 0.17 + 0.16 ) km s−1. Our computed intrinsic velocity dispersion profiles are consistent with the dynamical equilibrium models from Da Rio et al. (2014) in the tangential direction but not in the line-of-sight direction, possibly indicating that the core of the ONC is not yet virialized, and may require a nonspherical potential to explain the observed velocity dispersion profiles. We also observe a slight elongation along the north–south direction following the filament, which has been well studied in previous literature, and an elongation in the line-of-sight to tangential velocity direction. These 3D kinematics will help in the development of realistic models of the formation and early evolution of massive clusters.