Pioglitazone Restores Endothelial Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Treated with Insulin
Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders
The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pioglitazone on endothelial function, as assessed by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) nitroglycerine-induced dilatation (NID) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with insulin. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial involved 20 patients with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes. Patients received either pioglitazone 30 mg or placebo for 4 months. FMD, NID, and HbA1c were measured before and after 4 months of
... months of treatment. HbA1c decreased from 10.0 (± 2.3) to 8.4 (± 2.0) in the pioglitazone group, a statistically significant improvement in glycemic control (p = 0.018). HbA1c was unchanged in the placebo group (p = 0.477). Endothelial function as assessed by FMD significantly improved from 10.1 (± 4.0)% to 14.6 (± 6.2)% in the pioglitazone group (p = 0.036) as compared to the placebo group (p = 0.705). There was a trend towards improvement in the NID in the pioglitazone group (from 13.3 ± 8.0% to 18.9 ± 5.4%; p = 0.056). In insulin-treated patients with type 2 diabetes, the addition of pioglitazone improves endothelial function, as measured by FMD. Addition of pioglitazone to insulin in type 2 diabetes patients may favorably impact vascular function in diabetes, even after many years of insulin resistance and hyperglycemia.