The Question of Human in Modern Philosophy
Voprosy filosofii i psikhologii
The article analyzes the fate of the question «What is human?» in modern philosophy. The author identifies two basic strategies: posthumanism and postcosmism. The first strategy is dominant for western european philosophy, the second -for russian philosophy. Using the method of comparative analysis, the author characterizes both approaches. Posthumanist strategy is based on the idea of the end of the exclusivity of human existence. The author considers the concept of human death to be the
... ath to be the historical source of this idea. This idea is implemented by removing the basic oppositions, namely: «nature and culture», «human and technology», «human and animal», «human and objects». The essence of posthumanistic strategy consists in reducing a human to the world that exists, including him in the determinative whole. The posthumanist tradition is being embodied today in the projects of a new ontology, a new phenomenology, a new anthropology, and a new ecology. In modern russian philosophy, as well as in russian philosophy in general, the question of human determines the question of being. The concept of an anthropological catastrophe appears in russian philosophy and new anthropological projects are formulated that respond to its challenges. Poskosmism of modern russian philosophy consists in overcoming the logic of cosmism and establishing a connection with russian religious philosophy, discovering the essence of human not in nature and the body, but in his metaphysical expansion, transcending himself.