Bone Speed of Sound, Bone Turnover and IGF-I in Adolescent Synchronized Swimmers
Pediatric Exercise Science
This study examined the effects of whey protein supplementation, compared with an isocaloric carbohydrate beverage and water, consumed immediately following an intense swimming trial on bone turnover in adolescent swimmers. Methods: Fifty-eight (31 female, 27 male) swimmers (14.1 ± 0.4 years) were stratified into three groups matched for age, sex and body mass. The protein and carbohydrate groups consumed two isocaloric post-exercise beverages each containing 0.3 g . kg − 1 of whey protein
... f whey protein (with~6 mg of calcium) or maltodextrin while the control group consumed water. Participants provided a morning, fasted, resting blood sample, then performed an intense swimming trial consisting of a maximal 200 m swim followed by a high intensity interval swimming protocol (5x100m, 5x50m and 5x25m; 1:1 work-to-rest ratio). Following swimming, they consumed their first respective postexercise beverage, and 2 h later, they performed a second maximal swim immediately followed by the second beverage. Approximately 3 h after the second beverage, two post-consumption blood samples were collected at 8 h and 24 h from baseline. Procollagen type 1 intact N-terminal propeptide (PINP) and carboxy-terminal collagen crosslinks (CTXI) were measured in serum. The multiples of medians of PINP and CTXI were also used to calculate bone turnover rate and balance. Results: No significant changes were observed in PINP. CTXI increased (+ 11%) at 8 h in all groups, but then significantly decreased (− 22%) at 24 h in the protein group only. The protein group also had a significantly higher calculated rate of bone turnover at 8 h and 24 h compared to baseline, which was not observed in the other groups. Conclusions: These results shed light on the potential importance of protein consumed shortly after intense swimming in promoting positive bone turnover responses up to 24 h following exercise in adolescent athletes. Clinical trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov PRS; NCT04114045. Registered 1 October 2019 -Retrospectively registered.