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This study aimed to determine the effect of optimum pipe insulation thickness on energy savings and air pollution under greenhouse conditions. In this regard, an optimization model based on a Life Cycle Cost (LCC) analysis was carried out using the P1–P2 method. Three fuel types, coal, natural gas, and fuel oil, were tested with nominal pipe sizes ranging from 25 to 65 mm, and hot water was used in the system. Our findings showed that the highest insulation thickness (0.807 m), the greatestdoi:10.3390/su14010549 fatcat:ekqk6elf2ffejmfwecko5a3nj4