Astragalin Inhibits Cigarette Smoke-Induced Pulmonary Thrombosis and Alveolar Inflammation and Disrupts PAR Activation and Oxidative Stress-Responsive MAPK-Signaling
International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Epidemiological evidence shows that smoking causes a thrombophilic milieu that may play a role in the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as well as pulmonary thromboembolism. The increased nicotine level induces a prothrombotic status and abnormal blood coagulation in smokers. Since several anticoagulants increase bleeding risk, alternative therapies need to be identified to protect against thrombosis without affecting hemostasis. Astragalin is a flavonoid present
... persimmon leaves and green tea seeds and exhibits diverse activities of antioxidant and anti-inflammation. The current study investigated that astragalin attenuated smoking-induced pulmonary thrombosis and alveolar inflammation. In addition, it was explored that molecular links between thrombosis and inflammation entailed protease-activated receptor (PAR) activation and oxidative stress-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-signaling. BALB/c mice were orally administrated with 10–20 mg/kg astragalin and exposed to cigarette smoke for 8 weeks. For the in vitro study, 10 U/mL thrombin was added to alveolar epithelial A549 cells in the presence of 1–20 µM astragalin. The cigarette smoking-induced the expression of PAR-1 and PAR-2 in lung tissues, which was attenuated by the administration of ≥10 mg/kg astragalin. The oral supplementation of ≥10 mg/kg astragalin to cigarette smoke-challenged mice attenuated the protein induction of urokinase plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1and tissue factor, and instead enhanced the induction of tissue plasminogen activator in lung tissues. The astragalin treatment alleviated cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema and pulmonary thrombosis. Astragalin caused lymphocytosis and neutrophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid due to cigarette smoke but curtailed infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages in airways. Furthermore, this compound retarded thrombin-induced activation of PAR proteins and expression of inflammatory mediators in alveolar cells. Treating astragalin interrupted PAR proteins-activated reactive oxygen species production and MAPK signaling leading to alveolar inflammation. Accordingly, astragalin may interrupt the smoking-induced oxidative stress–MAPK signaling–inflammation axis via disconnection between alveolar PAR activation and pulmonary thromboembolism.