Use of Local Seismic Network in Analysis of Volcano-Tectonic (VT) Events Preceding the 2017 Agung Volcano Eruption (Bali, Indonesia)
Frontiers in Earth Science
This study provides an attempt to analyze the pre-eruptive seismicity events for volcano eruption forecasting. After more than 50 years of slumber, Agung volcano on Bali Island erupted explosively, starting on November 21, 2017. The eruption was preceded by almost 2 months of significant increase of recorded seismicity, herein defined as "seismic crisis." Our study provides the first analysis of VT events using data from eight local seismic stations deployed by the Center for Volcanology and
... logical Hazard Mitigation of Indonesia (CVGHM) to monitor the Agung Volcano activity. In total, 2,726 Volcano-Tectonic (VT) events, with 13,023 P waves and 11,823 S wave phases, were successfully identified between October 18 and November 30, 2017. We increased the accuracy of the hypocenter locations of these VT events using a double-difference (DD) relative relocation and a new velocity model appropriate to the subsurface geological conditions of Agung volcano. We found two types of seismicity during the recording period that represent the VT events relating to fracture network reactivation due to stress changes (during the seismic crisis) and magma intrusion (after the seismic crisis). The characteristics of each event type are discussed in terms of Vp/Vs values, phase delay times, seismic cluster shapes, and waveform similarity. We interpret that the upward migrating magma reached a barrier (probably a stiff layer) which prohibited further ascent. Consequently, magma pressurized the zone above the magma chamber and beneath the barrier, reactivated the fracture zone between Agung and Batur volcanoes, and caused the seismic crisis since September 2017. In early November 2017, the barrier was finally intruded, and magma and seismicity propagated toward the Agung summit. This reconstruction provides a better depth constraint as to the previous conceptual models and explains the long delay (∼10 weeks) between the onset of the seismic crisis and the eruption. The distinction between the fracture reactivation and magma intrusion VT events observed in this study is significant for eruption forecasting and understanding the subsurface structure of the magmatic system. Based on the results obtained in this study, we emphasize the importance of prompt analysis (location and basic seismic characteristics) of the seismic crisis preceding the Agung eruption.