A Semantic Focused Web Crawler Based on a Knowledge Representation Schema

Julio Hernandez, Heidy M. Marin-Castro, and Miguel Morales-Sandoval
2020 Applied Sciences  
The Web has become the main source of information in the digital world, expanding to heterogeneous domains and continuously growing. By means of a search engine, users can systematically search over the web for particular information based on a text query, on the basis of a domain-unaware web search tool that maintains real-time information. One type of web search tool is the semantic focused web crawler (SFWC); it exploits the semantics of the Web based on some ontology heuristics to determine
more » ... which web pages belong to the domain defined by the query. An SFWC is highly dependent on the ontological resource, which is created by domain human experts. This work presents a novel SFWC based on a generic knowledge representation schema to model the crawler's domain, thus reducing the complexity and cost of constructing a more formal representation as the case when using ontologies. Furthermore, a similarity measure based on the combination of the inverse document frequency (IDF) metric, standard deviation, and the arithmetic mean is proposed for the SFWC. This measure filters web page contents in accordance with the domain of interest during the crawling task. A set of experiments were run over the domains of computer science, politics, and diabetes to validate and evaluate the proposed novel crawler. The quantitative (harvest ratio) and qualitative (Fleiss' kappa) evaluations demonstrate the suitability of the proposed SFWC to crawl the Web using a knowledge representation schema instead of a domain ontology.
doi:10.3390/app10113837 fatcat:2c3jy2h2hzeaze2yjwqz6q6oje