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Measurement of the power spectral density (PSD) of a rough surface or a feature involves large random and systematic errors. While random errors can be reduced by averaging together many PSDs, systematic errors can be reduced only by carefully studying and understanding the sources of these systematic biases. Using both analytical expressions and numerical simulations for the measurement of the PSD of line-edge roughness, four sources of systematic errors are evaluated: aliasing, leakage,doi:10.1117/1.jmm.12.3.033016 fatcat:z5kgjq3kfrg3tkvtgigrovphom