CoPA: Cold Page Awakening to Overcome Retention Failures in STT-MRAM Based I/O Buffers [article]

Mostafa Hadizadeh, Elham Cheshmikhani, Maysam Rahmanpour, Onur Mutlu, Hossein Asadi
2022 arXiv   pre-print
Performance and reliability are two prominent factors in the design of data storage systems. To achieve higher performance, recently storage system designers use DRAM-based buffers. The volatility of DRAM brings up the possibility of data loss, so a part of the main storage is conventionally used as the journal area to be able of recovering unflushed data pages in the case of power failure. Moreover, periodically flushing buffered data pages to the main storage is a common mechanism to preserve
more » ... a high level of reliability, which leads to an increase in storage write traffic. To address this shortcoming, recent studies offer a small NVM as the Persistent Journal Area (PJA) along with DRAM as an efficient approach, named NVM-Backed Buffer (NVB-Buffer). This approach aims to address DRAM vulnerability against power failure while reducing storage write traffic. In this paper, we use the most promising technologies for PJA among the emerging technologies, which is STT-MRAM to meet the requirements of PJA (high endurance, non-volatility, and DRAM-like latency). However, STT-MRAM faces major reliability challenges, i.e. Retention Failure, Read Disturbance, and Write Failure. In this paper, we first show that retention failure is the dominant source of errors in NVB-Buffers as it suffers from long and unpredictable page idle intervals. Then, we propose a novel NVB-Buffer management scheme, named, Cold Page Awakening (CoPA), which predictably reduces the idle time of PJA pages. To this aim, CoPA employs Distant Refreshing to periodically overwrite the vulnerable PJA page contents by using their replica in DRAM-based buffer. We compare CoPA with the state-of-the-art schemes over several workloads based on physical journaling. Our evaluations show that employing CoPA leads to three orders of magnitude lower failure rate with negligible performance degradation (1.1%) and memory overhead (1.2%).
arXiv:2202.13409v1 fatcat:jsblyju4zja7jfmdbvndsbetzu