High-Efficiency Parallel Cryptographic Accelerator for Real-Time Guaranteeing Dynamic Data Security in Embedded Systems
Dynamic data security in embedded systems is raising more and more concerns in numerous safety-critical applications. In particular, the data exchanges in embedded Systems-on-Chip (SoCs) using main memory are exposing many security vulnerabilities to external attacks, which will cause confidential information leakages and program execution failures for SoCs at key points. Therefore, this paper presents a security SoC architecture with integrating a four-parallel Advanced Encryption
... is/Counter Mode (AES-GCM) cryptographic accelerator for achieving high-efficiency data processing to guarantee data exchange security between the SoC and main memory against bus monitoring, off-line analysis, and data tampering attacks. The architecture design has been implemented and verified on a Xilinx Virtex-5 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) platform. Based on evaluation of the cryptographic accelerator in terms of performance overhead, security capability, processing efficiency, and resource consumption, experimental results show that the parallel cryptographic accelerator does not incur significant performance overhead on providing confidentiality and integrity protections for exchanged data; its average performance overhead reduces to as low as 2.65% on typical 8-KB I/D-Caches, and its data processing efficiency is around 3 times that of the pipelined AES-GCM construction. The reinforced SoC under the data tampering attacks and benchmark tests confirms the effectiveness against external physical attacks and satisfies a good trade-off between high-efficiency and hardware overhead.