Expression of the Circadian Clock Genes clock and period1 in Human Skin

Susana B. Zanello, David M. Jackson, Michael F. Holick
2000 Journal of Investigative Dermatology  
The circadian clock is a cellular machine composed of proteins with regulated expression that gives rise to circadian rhythms. Two main new concepts have arisen from recent research in the ®eld in the last few years: (i) at least three to ®ve key genes are involved in maintaining the basic circadian cellular rhythms, and (ii) their expression is fairly ubiquitous, extending beyond the traditionally considered pacemaker in mammals, the suprachiasmatic nucleus. We have demonstrated the expression
more » ... of two circadian clock genes, clock and period1, in human skin cells. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction revealed the presence of clock and period1 mRNA in cultured human keratinocytes, melanocytes, and dermal ®broblasts, as well as in the human keratinocyte cell line HaCaT and the human melanoma line A375. In addition, antibodies to these two proteins produced immuno-positive staining in these cell types. Our investigations demonstrate for the ®rst time that skin cells express circadian clock proteins constitutively although regulation of their expression and activity has not been elucidated. These proteins may have a role in cutaneous and/or systemic circadian biology and the skin and skin cells may provide an attractive model for the study of circadian rhythms.
doi:10.1046/j.1523-1747.2000.00121.x pmid:10998156 fatcat:3rrr6ina3fbhxppdgaqiwchli4