A copy of this work was available on the public web and has been preserved in the Wayback Machine. The capture dates from 2017; you can also visit the original URL.
The file type is
This article provides a snapshot of pass/fail and discretionary grading approaches, highlighting the advantages and disadvantages of each. Normreferenced and criterion-referenced grading practices and their associations with learning are identified. A brief historical backdrop illustrates how grading practices have evolved. The inherent subjectivity of grading is emphasized. Pass/fail grading supports intrinsic motivation and self-direction, but limits opportunities for recognizing excellingdoi:10.4236/ojn.2017.72016 fatcat:ahjrybfh3rbsfa2u5wqx6hri34