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This article introduces an efficient and high-precision estimation framework for four-wheel independently actuated (FWIA) autonomous vehicles based on a novel tire model and adaptive square-root cubature Kalman filter (SCKF) estimation strategy. Firstly, a reliable and concise tire model that considers the tire's nonlinear mechanics characteristics under combined conditions through the piecewise affine (PWA) identification method is established to improve the accuracy of the lateral dynamicsdoi:10.3390/s22093403 pmid:35591093 pmcid:PMC9104631 fatcat:a6npqm57hvf4hncrq7i4msgd4e