Vital signs monitoring during injectable and inhalant anesthesia in mice
Selecting the appropriate anesthetic protocol for the individual animal is an essential part of laboratory animal experimentation. The present study compared the characteristics of four anesthetic protocols in mice, focusing on the vital signs. Thirty-two male ddY mice were divided into four groups and administered anesthesia as follows: pentobarbital sodium monoanaesthesia; ketamine and xylazine combined (K/X); medetomidine, midazolam, and butorphanol combined (M/M/B); and isoflurane. In each
... roup, rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, and O 2 saturation (SPO 2 ) were measured, and the changes over time and instability in these signs were compared. The anesthetic depth was also evaluated in each mouse, and the percentage of mice achieving surgical anesthesia was calculated. K/X anesthesia caused remarkable bradycardia, while the respiratory rate and SPO 2 were higher than with the others, suggesting a relatively strong cardiac influence and less respiratory depression. The M/M/B group showed a relatively lower heart rate and SPO 2 , but these abnormalities were rapidly reversed by atipamezole administration. The pentobarbital group showed a lower SPO 2 , and 62.5% of mice did not reach a surgical anesthetic depth. The isoflurane group showed a marked decrease in respiratory rate compared with the injectable anesthetic groups. However, it had the most stable SPO 2 among the groups, suggesting a higher tidal volume. The isoflurane group also showed the highest heart rate during anesthesia. In conclusion, the present study showed the cardiorespiratory characteristics of various anesthetic protocols, providing basic information for selecting an appropriate anesthetic for individual animals during experimentation.