Kinematics of chromodynamic multicomponent lattice Boltzmann simulation with a large density contrast
Physical review. E
The utility of an enhanced chromodynamic, color gradient or phase-field multicomponent lattice Boltzmann (MCLB) equation for immiscible fluids with a density difference was demonstrated by Wen et al. [Phys. Rev. E 100, 023301 (2019)] and Ba et al. [Phys. Rev. E 94, 023310 (2016)], who advanced earlier work by Liu et al. [Phys. Rev. E 85, 046309 (2012)] by removing certain error terms in the momentum equations. But while these models' collision scheme has been carefully enhanced by degrees,
... ed by degrees, there is, currently, no quantitative consideration in the macroscopic dynamics of the segregation scheme which is common to all. Here, by analysis of the kinetic-scale segregation rule (previously neglected when considering the continuum behavior) we derive, bound, and test the emergent kinematics of the continuum fluids' interface for this class of MCLB, concurrently demonstrating the circular relationship with-and competition between-the models' dynamics and kinematics. The analytical and numerical results we present in Sec. V confirm that, at the kinetic scale, for a range of density contrast, color is a material invariant. That is, within numerical error, the emergent interface structure is isotropic (i.e., without orientation dependence) and Galilean-invariant (i.e., without dependence on direction of motion). Numerical data further suggest that reported restrictions on the achievable density contrast in rapid flow, using chromodynamic MCLB, originate in the effect on the model's kinematics of the terms deriving from our term F 1i in the evolution equation, which correct its dynamics for large density differences. Taken with Ba's applications and validations, this result significantly enhances the theoretical foundation of this MCLB variant, bringing it somewhat belatedly further into line with the schemes of Inamuro et al. [J. Comput. Phys. 198, 628 (2004)] and the free-energy scheme [see, e.g., Phys. Rev. E. 76, 045702(R) (2007), and references therein] which, in contradistinction to the present scheme and perhaps wisely, postulate appropriate kinematics a priori.