Cholera Toxin Subunit B for Sensitive and Rapid Determination of Exosomes by Gel Filtration

Karolina Sapoń, Dominika Maziarz, Teresa Janas, Aleksander F. Sikorski, Tadeusz Janas
2020 Membranes  
We developed a sensitive fluorescence-based assay for determination of exosome concentration. In our assay, Cholera toxin subunit B (CTB) conjugated to a fluorescence probe and a gel filtration technique (size-exclusion chromatography) are used. Exosomal membranes are particularly enriched in raft-forming lipids (cholesterol, sphingolipids, and saturated phospholipids) and in GM1 ganglioside. CTB binds specifically and with high affinity to exosomal GM1 ganglioside residing in rafts only, and
more » ... has long been the probe of choice for membrane rafts. The CTB-gel filtration assay allows for detection of as little as 3 × 108 isolated exosomes/mL in a standard fluorometer, which has a sensitivity comparable to other methods using advanced instrumentation. The linear quantitation range for CTB-gel filtration assay extends over one order of magnitude in exosome concentration. Using 80 nM fluorescence-labeled CTB, we quantitated 3 × 108 to 6 × 109 exosomes/mL. The assay ranges exhibited linear fluorescence increases versus exosome concentration (r2 = 0.987). The assay was verified for exosomal liposomes. The assay is easy to use, rapid, and does not require any expensive or sophisticated instrumentation.
doi:10.3390/membranes10080172 pmid:32751790 fatcat:4v5ev5vjqfaulgyoqijj4jwvge