Drug Repurposing in Medical Mycology: Identification of Compounds as Potential Antifungals to Overcome the Emergence of Multidrug-Resistant Fungi

Lucie Peyclit, Hanane Yousfi, Jean-Marc Rolain, Fadi Bittar
2021 Pharmaceuticals  
Immunodepression, whether due to HIV infection or organ transplantation, has increased human vulnerability to fungal infections. These conditions have created an optimal environment for the emergence of opportunistic infections, which is concomitant to the increase in antifungal resistance. The use of conventional antifungal drugs as azoles and polyenes can lead to clinical failure, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. Difficulties related to treating fungal infections combined with
more » ... ons combined with the time required to develop new drugs, require urgent consideration of other therapeutic alternatives. Drug repurposing is one of the most promising and rapid solutions that the scientific and medical community can turn to, with low costs and safety advantages. To treat life-threatening resistant fungal infections, drug repurposing has led to the consideration of well-known and potential molecules as a last-line therapy. The aim of this review is to provide a summary of current antifungal compounds and their main resistance mechanisms, following by an overview of the antifungal activity of non-traditional antimicrobial drugs. We provide their eventual mechanisms of action and the synergistic combinations that improve the activity of current antifungal treatments. Finally, we discuss drug repurposing for the main emerging multidrug resistant (MDR) fungus, including the Candida auris, Aspergillus or Cryptococcus species.
doi:10.3390/ph14050488 pmid:34065420 fatcat:byx4zilysnblxkbb2udjx2krne