Modelling carbon-chain species formation in lukewarm corinos with new multi-phase models
Astronomy and Astrophysics
Abundant carbon-chain species have been observed towards lukewarm corinos L1527, B228, and L483. These carbon-chain species are believed to be synthesized in the gas phase after CH_4 desorbs from the dust grain surface at the temperature around 30 K. We investigate carbon-chain species formation in lukewarm corinos using a more rigorous numerical method and advanced surface chemical models. We use the macroscopic Monte Carlo method in simulations. In addition to the two-phase model, the basic
... ltiphase model and the new multiphase models are used for modeling surface chemistry on dust grains. All volatile species can sublime at their sublimation temperatures in the two-phase model while most volatile species are frozen in the ice mantle before water ice sublimes in the basic and the new multiphase models. The new multiphase models allow more volatile species to sublime at their sublimation temperatures than the basic multiphase model does. When T ∼ 30 K, the abundances of gaseous CH_4 and CO in the two-phase model are the highest while the basic multiphase model predicts the lowest CO and CH_4 abundances among all models. The abundances of carbon-chain species in the basic and the new multiphase models are lower than that in the two-phase model when T ∼ 30 K because CH_4 is crucial for the synthesis of carbon-chain species. The two-phase model performs the best to predict carbon-chain species abundances to fit observations while the basic multiphase model works the worst. The abundances of carbon-chain species predicted by the new multiphase models agree reasonably well with observations. The amount of CH_4 that can diffuse inside the ice mantle, thus sublime upon warm-up plays a crucial role in the synthesis of carbon-chain species in the gas phase. The carbon-chain species observed in lukewarm corinos may be able to gauge surface chemical models.