The Challenge of Combining High Yields with Environmentally Friendly Bioproducts: A Review on the Compatibility of Pesticides with Microbial Inoculants
Inoculants or biofertilizers aiming to partially or fully replace chemical fertilizers are becoming increasingly important in agriculture, as there is a global perception of the need to increase sustainability. In this review, we discuss some important results of inoculation of a variety of crops with rhizobia and other plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB). Important improvements in the quality of the inoculants and on the release of new strains and formulations have been achieved. However,
... chieved. However, agriculture will continue to demand chemical pesticides, and their low compatibility with inoculants, especially when applied to seeds, represents a major limitation to the success of inoculation. The differences in the compatibility between pesticides and inoculants depend on their active principle, formulation, time of application, and period of contact with living microorganisms; however, in general they have a high impact on cell survival and metabolism, affecting the microbial contribution to plant growth. New strategies to solve the incompatibility between pesticides and inoculants are needed, as those that have been proposed to date are still very modest in terms of demand.