Biomass Gasification Research Facility Final Report [report]

Todd R Snyder, Vann Bush, Larry G Felix, William E Farthing, James H Irvin
2007 unpublished
Executive Summary The specific objective of DE-FC36-03GO13175 was to develop comprehensive in situ and extractive gas sampling equipment and protocols that enable the evaluation, optimization and integration of syngas treatment technologies at various gasification facilities. After its novation to GTI, the companion project, Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024, primarily covered the selection, acquisition, and application of a suite of gas analyzers capable of providing near real-time
more » ... ear real-time analyses of suitably conditioned syngas streams. The sampling equipment and protocols developed under both these projects were proven in the field through evaluations of syngas quality at two sites where biomass-derived syngas was generated. In a stepwise series of field demonstrations conducted under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-03GO13175, GTI developed the sample delivery and distribution methods and hardware, and sample conditioning interfaces, necessary to make use of on-line analyzers to evaluate and optimize syngas cleanup and conditioning in thermochemical process streams. Initial tests at GTI's Flex-Fuel Test Facility (FFTF) in late 2004 and early 2005 successfully demonstrated the transport and subsequent analysis of a single depressurized, heat-traced syngas stream to a single analyzer (an Industrial Machine and Control Corporation (IMACC) Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR)). In March 2005, our sampling approach was significantly expanded when this project participated in the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory's Novel Gas Cleaning (NGC) project. Syngas sample streams from three locations in the FFTF process stream were transported to a distribution manifold for selectable analysis by three analyzers (the IMACC FT-IR, a Stanford Research Systems QMS300 Mass Spectrometer (SRS MS), and a Varian micro gas chromatograph with thermal conductivity detector (μGC)). In addition, a syngas stream from a fourth location in the FFTF process stream was transported to a separately located Agilent Model 5890 Series II gas chromatograph for highly sensitive gas analyses. The on-line analyses made possible by our sampling system in conjunction with the analyzers provided by Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024 and GTI verified the syngas cleaning achieved by the NGC process. In June 2005, GTI completed a field test campaign in collaboration with Weyerhaeuser to characterize the Chemrec TM black liquor gasifier at Weyerhaeuser's New Bern, North Carolina pulp mill. Over a ten-day period, a broad range of process operating conditions were characterized with GTI's online sampling capabilities, which comprised the IMACC FT-IR, the SRS MS, the Varian μGC, and an integrated Gas Chromatograph, Mass Selective Detector, Flame Ionization Detector and Sulfur Chemiluminescence Detector (GC/MSD/FID/SCD) system acquired from Wasson-ECE. In this field application, a single sample stream was extracted from this low-pressure, low-temperature process and successfully analyzed by the four devices listed above. The sample management system that GTI developed uses thermally-controlled, inert gas to lower the dew points of condensable species in the process gas. This in turn permits direct sampling, and on-line, real-time analyses of the process gas without the loss of condensable species from the sampled gas stream. This sample conditioning approach enables the delivery of multiple sample streams to suitable analyzers, through customized sample distribution manifolds, at temperatures and pressures acceptable to the analyzers. The field demonstration in New Bern, NC included selective use of the first-generation dilution unit designed and fabricated under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-03GO13175. A secondgeneration version of this sample conditioning approach, the Sample Expansion and Distribution Interface (SEDI), was used in biomass gasification tests conducted in October and November 2005 under this Cooperative Agreement and Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024. This intensive field evaluation of our updated approach for thermochemical process sampling occurred at GTI's FFTF during a concurrent evaluation of pelletized woodfueled gasification and catalyst performance investigated under DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FG36-04GO14314. Our field evaluation was focused on the depressurization, spiking and calibration, dilution, and sample distribution capabilities of the SEDI. This field effort included evaluation of redesigned sample transport lines, heat tracing, and syngas sample distribution manifolds. This test verified the effectiveness of our sampling approach for the challenging task of continuous syngas sampling and analysis from biomass-fueled gasification process streams. In March 2006 we continued our sampling development and verification activities with an intensive set of calibration measurements at GTI's FFTF. In FY2007 GTI completed the preparation of a special topical report documenting the standard designs and protocols for sampling from thermochemical processes developed under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-03GO13175. The report includes descriptions of the design, fabrication, and installation of the equipment used to provide the complete interface between the thermochemical process stream and the on-line analyzer(s) that were selected to characterize the syngas. (Although our experiences with the specific analyzers we used under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-02GO12024 were referenced to enhance these descriptions, the interface design presented in this topical report was generic enough to adapt to other analyzers that may be more appropriate to alternate process streams or facilities.)
doi:10.2172/916922 fatcat:aj2lo2qlwnd5xjucffc3nuxv2m