Importance of Micrornas in Human Cancer Development: A Molecular Analytical Approach

Ahmed FE, Gouda MM, Ahmed NC
2021 Clinics of Surgery  
Common steps in analysis of microRNA expression levels between different tissues, developmental stages, or disease states is to study microRNA expression levels by several methods as: NGS, microarray analysis, real-time PCR, Northern blots, in situ hybridization, and solution hybridization. Of these techniques, quantitative reverse transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) is one the most sensitive and accurate method. For qRT-PCR applications, the tools include: a) Effective method of
more » ... icroRNA isolation from samples; b) RT-qPCR reagents optimized for microRNA detection; c) Assays specific to the microRNAs of interest, and d) Real-time analytical instruments and reagents validated for mi-croRNA detection. MicroRNAs have also been employed diagnostically, using liquid biopsies. Growing interest and utility of Circulating Cell-Free DNA [cfD-NA] and interest in their role in oncology re-search is continue to grow in importance, in order to exploit their role as biomarkers for detecting premalignant and early stage cancers. The field of microRNA-based cancer research has witnessed a remarkable evolution over the last two decades, is the role of microRNAs as disease prognostic biomarkers, as well as recent attempts to exploit their role as therapeutic targets, as their small size and their stability in a variety of body fluids make them attractive substrates for employment as biomarkers. Current approaches for detecting microRNAs in blood and other body fluids is inadequate. The advantage of using microRNA approach is based on concurrently tar-geting multiple effectors of pathways involved in cell differentiation, proliferation, as well as in cell survival. In this review, we have employed regulatory small microRNAs as unifying molecules, which have shown a strong correlation with induction and progression of many human cancers, as they progress from the non-to the invasive stages of various types of human cancers, as detailed in this review below. Main Common Human Cancers in The USA Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade other body parts, in contrast with benign tumors that do not spread. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleed-ing, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss and a change in bowel movement. While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they are also other causes. Over 100 types of cancers affect humans. The 13 most common can-cers in the USA (out of ~ 200) [1], represent approximately 71.5% of all estimated yearly new cases, for year 2018 are breast cancer, lung cancer, prostate cancer, colorectal cancer, melanoma skin cancer, bladder cancer, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, kidney cancer, endometrial cancer, leukemia, pancreatic cancer, thyroid cancer, and liver & intrahepatic bile duct cancer [2, 3], as tabulated in (Table 1 ).
doi:10.47829/cos.2021.6401 fatcat:ia5taaywgzdk7o3n7cuak46ezy